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How It Works

How It Works
  • 02 October, 2021

Electric current is defined as the phenomenon of moving electrons through a material called a conductor. The movement is easier when it comes to a good conductor of electricity (such as the copper with which we make cables) or it is very difficult in cases where we have a bad conductor of electricity (such as a material made of plastic).

There is also an intermediate category called semiconductors. There the motion of the electrons takes place as long as certain conditions are met. Semiconductors are the basic building material of modern electronic devices e.g. integrated circuits.

Batteries consist of three main parts. The anode (negative pole of the battery), the cathode (positive pole of the battery) and the electrolyte. Suppose we connect a battery to an electrical circuit designed to supply a common light bulb. The chemical reaction that takes place inside the battery causes the electrons to move between the anode and the cathode. This causes a potential difference between them. The electrons try to cancel this difference and by repelling each other, they move to areas with fewer electrons. In a battery this part is the cathode.

By connecting the battery to the rest of the circuit, the electrons that accumulate in this area will leak to the rest of the circuit until they are completely depleted. When the electrons are consumed the battery is empty.

Depending on the composition of the electrolyte, the characteristics of the battery are determined. The electrolyte also determines whether the battery is rechargeable or non-rechargeable.

During recharging, the battery is charged with new electrons from the rechargeable device. The chemical reaction that takes place inside the battery in this case has the opposite direction and is characterized as an anode.